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[264] 5 Common Mistakes in Laser Engraving and How to Avoid Them

投稿者: vicky 投稿日:2018年 6月28日(木)01時09分51秒 host228-235-177-94.static.arubacloud.fr  通報   返信・引用

Whether you are an experienced engineer or a novice maker, learning the proper uses of design equipment to avoid pitfalls and mistakes takes time and experience.
From time to time, issues come up that leave designers wondering what they did wrong or how they could do something better. This is true in any field and laser engraving is no different.
Knowing how to avoid these mistakes so they don’t come up again is half the battle. Mistake 1: Engraving Fabric but the Laser Burns through the Material
The first step in avoiding burning fabric with a laser Cnc engraving machine is to understand what fabric can withstand the process and at what temperatures. Heartier fabrics such as denim, canvas and leather can withstand higher power settings during engraving. But when it comes to delicate fabrics, it is important to start on a high speed setting and a low power setting?maybe 5 percent to 10 percent. Then if the fabric can withstand it, increase the power from there until you get the results you are looking for.
When it comes to direct-to-garment engraving, it is helpful to lower the dots per inch (DPI) at which you engrave. The higher the DPI, the more material will be removed. Engraving at a lower DPI helps ensure the laser just slightly vaporizes the top layer and doesn’t burn entirely through the fabric. Most fabric engravings do fine at 150 to 300 DPI.
Mistake 2: Acrylic Doesn’t Produce a Frosty White Engraving
More than likely, this is caused by using the wrong acrylic in the application. Two types of acrylics are typically used in laser engraving and both are suitable for different applications.
Cast acrylic sheets and objects are made from a liquid acrylic that is poured into molds that then can be set into various shapes and sizes. This type of acrylic is ideal for engraving because it turns a frosty white color when engraved, making it suitable for awards and plaques. It can be cut with a laser, but it won’t give projects flame-polished edges.
The other type used in laser engraving is called extruded acrylic, which is formed into sheets by a machine. Extruded acrylic is generally less expensive than cast acrylic because it is formed through a higher-volume manufacturing technique. However, it does react very differently with the laser-engraving machine. This type of acrylic cuts cleanly and smoothly and produces a flame-polished edge; however, when engraved, it doesn’t produce that frosted look, but rather a clear engraving. So make sure you are using cast acrylic if you want a frosted white finish.
Mistake 3: Inconsistent Glass Engraving
Oftentimes, when a laser strikes glass it will fracture the surface but not engrave deeply or remove the material needed to engrave fully. The fractured glass surface will produce a frosted appearance, but can be rough and chipped depending on the type of glass that is being engraved. While the frosted look is desired, no one wants a rough surface or chipping.
In order to produce a smooth frosted finish, try incorporating one or several of the tips below:
? Use a lower resolution, about 300 DPI, which will produce a better result on glass as you separate the dots you are engraving.
? Change the black in your graphic to 80 percent black to improve the engraving quality.
? Sometimes, applying a thin, wet sheet of newspaper or a paper towel to the engraving area will help with heat dissipation and improve the engraving process. Just make sure there are no wrinkles in the paper after it is applied.
? Another way to dissipate heat is to apply a thin coat of liquid dish soap ? either with your finger or a paper towel to the area you’re engraving.
? Finally, if there are shards of glass after engraving, polish the area with a non-scratch scour pad.
Mistake 4: Wood Engraving Produces Different Results on the Same Setting
Wood is one of the most laser-friendly materials available not only because it can be cut very easily, but also because it engraves very well.
However, different woods have different reactions when they are laser-engraved and produce different characteristics. Lighter woods, like cherry or maple, produce a nice contrast where the laser burns away the wood, while denser woods require more laser power to cut or engrave.
When laser engraving wood, grain density can change dramatically depending on the type. Cherry, alder, walnut and maple have fairly little veins of grain in them, while oak has medium to large veins. For example, if a large box was engraved into a piece of cherry and a piece of oak, the box engraved into the cherry would have a very uniform appearance, the area engraved or the background would be smooth with little variation in height. The oak on the other hand would vary greatly in height and have a very non-uniformed appearance.
Here are some tips when engraving with wood:
? Maple and alder are some of the the most popular woods for engraving, providing a rich contrast.
? Bare wood engraving produces smoke and debris during the process and can become embedded into the grain of the wood. To reduce this effect, always engrave from the bottom up ? this helps draw any smoke away from the engraving.
? When engraving stained wood, excess smoke and debris can be wiped off the surface of the wood after engraving with a damp cloth.
Mistake 5: Laser Engraver Doesn’t Perform as Fast Anymore
Clean your machine! Much like other types of design equipment, a clean machine produces better results than one that is not properly maintained. But if a drop in performance happens quickly, checking and cleaning the optics may be the first step in correcting the problem.
You should inspecting the optics in the laser?the lenses and mirrors?weekly and cleaning as needed. If you’re cutting materials that produce more residue ? like wood or acrylic ? you may find your optics need to be cleaned more frequently. Typically, optics are clear gold in color and are bright and shiny. If they are cloudy or have smudges or debris, it’s time to clean them.
The mistakes listed above are common among makers and designers that use laser Cnc engraving machine, especially those just beginning to use the equipment. But as you can see they are easily avoidable if you have the knowledge to correct the mistake.

http://www.taikanmachine.com/landing/cnc-engraving-machine.html




[263] What is skim cotton thread filter

投稿者: vicky 投稿日:2018年 6月28日(木)01時08分26秒 host228-235-177-94.static.arubacloud.fr  通報   返信・引用

Skim cotton thread filter is widely used in metallurgy, chemical industry, petroleum, papermaking, medicine, food, mining, electric power, urban, household and other gas fields. Cotton core transport medium filter is indispensable to a device, usually installed in a reducing valve, relief valve, positioning the inlet valve or other equipment, used to eliminate the impurity in the medium, in order to protect the valve and the normal use of equipment, reduce maintenance costs.
When fluid is placed into the cartridge filter, its impurities by filter, and clean the air filter is the filter outlet, when need to be cleaned, as long as the filter cartridge apart, remove the filter element, to reload after cleaning. Therefore, the use and maintenance of Skim cotton thread filter is very convenient.
Maximum allowable pressure: 1bar, 2bar, 6bar, 10bar, 16bar, 25bar
Connection caliber: DN15-DN150
Connection mode: screw / flange
Working temperature: -15 C -+80 C
Filtering accuracy: ?50μm
Skim cotton thread filter medium: City gas, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, artificial gas and other non corrosive gases.
Installation attention
The cotton core filter should normally be installed before the regulator and must be installed according to the direction of gas flow indicated on it.
The cotton core filter is made up of washable synthetic materials. When installing filters, the lid can be easily opened and cleaned and inspecting easily.
Cotton core filter can be installed on horizontal and vertical pipes, and do not install filters on unstable foundations.
Before the repair, please make sure that there is no gas in the cotton core filter, the filter net is unloaded, washed with soapy water, then naturally dry, and then reinstalled.

http://www.hl-filter.cn/landing/skim-cotton-thread-filter.html



[262] What is a CNC Tapping center ?

投稿者: vicky 投稿日:2018年 6月28日(木)01時06分53秒 host228-235-177-94.static.arubacloud.fr  通報   返信・引用

The mathematic accuracy and high efficiency needed for manufacturing quality parts is successfully guided in part by computer numerical control (CNC) machines.
A CNC Tapping Center is a numerically controlled machine tool used for machining parts in every industrial field, featuring high speed, high accuracy, and high productivity. Development of Tapping Centers has enabled milling and fine boring in addition to tapping, achieving high productivity, improved machining capabilities, and greater reliability that shatter conventional common sense.

http://www.taikanmachine.com/landing/cnc-tapping-center.html



[261] How to Make a Water Filter

投稿者: ss 投稿日:2018年 6月28日(木)00時46分25秒 host228-235-177-94.static.arubacloud.fr  通報   返信・引用   編集済

Water is essential to life. This technique is very useful when you are hunting to survive. People can live up to a week without food, but only two to three days without water. Clean water can be hard to find if you get stranded in the wild or if there is an emergency. If you have to find your own water supply, you must be able to strain out impurities that can make you sick. This article will tell you how to make a water filter.
1.Gather your supplies. You will be making a water filter that relies on layers to make dirty water clean. If you plan on drinking this water, you will need to boil it after you have filtered it.Here is a list of what you will need:
? Plastic bottle with a cap
? Craft knife
? Hammer and nail
? Coffee filter
? Large cup or mug (Either one works)
? Activated charcoal
? Sand
? Gravel
? Container to catch the water (jar, cup, mug, etc)
2.Use a craft knife to cut the bottom inch (2.54 centimeters) or so off of the plastic bottle. Stick the knife into the side of the bottle, and start cutting it slowly. You may find that making short, back-and-forth cuts (like sawing) may be easier.
? If you are a child, ask an adult to help you with this step
? Add handle so that you can hang it while it filters the water. Start by poking two holes near the cut edge of the bottle. Make the holes opposite of each other. Thread a piece of string through the two holes. Tie the string in a knot.
3.Use a hammer and nail to punch a hole in the cap. The hole will help slow down the flow of water and make the filter more effective. If you don't have a hammer or nail, use a craft knife to stab an X shape into the bottle cap.
4.Put the coffee filter over the mouth of the bottle and tighten the cap over it. The coffee filter will keep the activated charcoal inside the bottle and keep it from falling out. The cap will hold the coffee filter in place.
5.Put the bottle cap-side-down into a mug or cup. This will help keep the bottle steady while you fill it. If you don't have a cup or mug, then you can place the bottle down on a table. You will need to hold it steady with one hand.
6.Fill the bottom third of the bottle with activated charcoal. If the charcoal comes in large pieces, you will need to break them down into smaller pieces. Do this by putting the chunks inside a bag, and crushing them with a hard object (such as a hammer). You don't want the chunks to be larger than a pea.
? Charcoal can get very dirty. You can keep your hands clean by wearing some gloves.
7.Fill the middle of bottle with sand. You can use any type of sand you want, but avoid using colored craft sand. Colored sand may leak dyes into the water. Try to make the sand layer about as thick as the charcoal layer. The bottle should be a little more than half-way full by now.
? Try using two types of sand: a fine grained sand and a coarse grained sand. The finer sand will go first, on top of the charcoal. The coarse grained sand will go next, on top of the fine-grained sand. This will create more layers for the water to pass through, and help make it cleaner.
8.Fill the rest of the bottle with a gravel. Leave an inch (2.54 centimeters) or so of empty space between the gravel and the cut part of the bottle. Do not fill the bottle all the way with gravel, or the water may spill over if it does not drain fast enough.
? Try using two types of gravel: a fine grained gravel and a chunky gravel. The fine grained gravel will go first, on top of the sand. The chunky gravel will go next, on top of the fine gravel.

http://www.hl-filter.cn/landing/water-filter.html



[260] Study shows waste plastic can be converted into energy and fuels

投稿者: digood 投稿日:2018年 6月25日(月)15時10分20秒 27.44.208.83  通報   返信・引用

Waste plastic is flooding our landfills and leaking into the oceans, with potentially disastrous effects. In fact, the World Economic Forum predicts that if current production and waste management trends continue, by 2050 there could be more plastic than fishes in the ocean.

Why is this happening when there are processes and technologies that can effectively recycle, convert to valuable products and extract the imbedded energy from these waste plastics? According to Science Advances, as of 2015, of the 6,300 million tons of waste plastic generated in the United States, only 9 percent has been recycled, 12 percent has been incinerated, with the vast majority ? 79 percent ? accumulating in landfills or the natural environment.

The Earth Engineering Center (EEC|CCNY) at the Grove School of Engineering of the City College of New York is on a mission to transform waste plastic to energy and fuels.

A recent EEC study titled "The Effects of Non-recycled Plastic (NRP) on Gasification: A Quantitative Assessment," shows that what we're disposing of is actually a resource we can use. The study, by Marco J. Castaldi, Professor of chemical engineering Director of Earth System Science and Environmental Engineering and Director of the EEC|CCNY and Demetra Tsiamis Associate Director of the EEC|CCNY, explores how adding NRPs to a chemical recycling technology called gasification ? which transforms waste materials into fuels ? adds value.

Adding NRPs to the gasification process helps reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while significantly reducing the amount of waste byproduct to landfill ? by up to 76 percent.

In the study, published by the American Chemistry Council, the effects of increasing the percentage of non-recycled plastics (NRPs) are measured at Enerkem, a Montreal-based energy company, in collaboration with the City of Edmonton in Alberta, Canada.

"This study demonstrates that because carbon and hydrogen rich plastics have high energy content, there is tremendous potential to use technologies like gasification to convert these materials into fuels, chemicals, and other products. We were fortunate to engage a couple of students and engineers from our team enabling them to learn about this novel process," said Castaldi.

Tsiamis added: "Plastics have an end of life use that will be turning waste into energy, which is something we all need and use."

http://www.nhvplant.com/landing/waste-tyre-pyrolysis-machine.html



[259] How to tackling tyre taste

投稿者: digood 投稿日:2018年 6月25日(月)15時09分21秒 27.44.208.83  通報   返信・引用

With the rapidly growing number of vehicles around the world, the disposal of end-of-life tyres is a growing issue. Often simply dumped by the million to pose a serious environmental, health and fire risk, the technology to recover higher value materials and energy from waste tyres is moving forward.
Figures published by the U.S. Rubber Manufacturers Association estimate that the U.S. - the world's largest producer of ELTs - generated 291.8 million tyres in 2009. With an average weight of 33.4 pounds (15.1 kg) that equates to some 4.4 million tonnes. According to statistics published by the European Tyre & Rubber Manufacturers' Association (ETRMA), in 2010 Europe produced around 2.7 million tonnes of ELTs.
With so many ELTs being produced, as well as the huge stockpiles from the past, waste tyres pose many potential dangers. They can contaminate groundwater, harbour disease carrying mosquitoes in pooled water and they are not only flammable, but once ablaze, extremely difficult to extinguish.
Often the result of arson, fires at tyre dumps are not uncommon. In 1990 Hagersville, Ontario was the scene of one of the worst tyre fires in history. As a mechanised army of fire fighters struggled to gain control of the situation, for 17 days 14 million tyres packed onto the 11 acre site spewed toxic clouds of thick black smoke into the air.
According to the New York Times, in addition to the toxic fumes, around 158,000 gallons (600,000 litres) of oil was released by the melting rubber was collected from the site. Chemical pollutants, suspected to have been caused by the operation to extinguish the fire were also found in the aftermath of the blaze.
In a separate incident an underground dumpsite in Wales, thought to contain around 9 million tyres, burned for an astonishing 15 years following its ignition in 1989.
Regulations
Because of the hazards associated with scrap tyres, nearly all developed countries regulate their disposal. In the EU, while no single directive or regulation targets ELTs, the Landfill Directive banned them from being disposed of to landfill whole in 2003 and in 2006 banned even their shredded remains from landfill.
In the U.S. 38 states ban whole tyres from landfills, 35 states allow shredded tyres to be landfilled, 11 states ban all tyres from landfill, 17 states allow processed tyres to be placed into monofills (a landfill designated for a the disposal of a single material) and eight states have no restrictions on placing scrap tyres in landfills. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 48 states currently have laws or regulations which specifically deal with scrap tyres.
In the UK, to promote more robust standards in the collection and disposal of end-of-life tyres, and to help eradicate rogue operators, in 1999 the Tyre Industry Federation launched a voluntary initiative, the Responsible Recycler Scheme (RSS). Under the scheme tyres are stored, collected, recycled or reprocessed in line with all UK and UE legislations. Independent audits and full traceability mean that tyres handled by RRS member companies can be tracked throughout the disposal chain. Retailers usually pass the associated costs of the scheme onto the customers, with a disposal surcharge attached to the purchase of a new tyre.
In 2004 the Tyre Recovery Association (TRA) was formed to support the RRS. All TRA members are fully accredited, which guarantees that all tyres collected, recycled or reprocessed by them are disposed of or reused appropriately.
The programme has gone on to become the largest of its kind in Europe and currently handles some 45 million used tyres every year. Other countries including Germany, Switzerland, Austria and New Zealand operate similar voluntary systems, as well as many U.S. states.
Composition and Uses
According to the World Business Council for Sustainable Development's Tire Industry Project, which has published a framework for the effective management of ELTs, a typical tyre contains 30 types of synthetic rubber, eight types of natural rubber, eight types of carbon black, steel cord, polyester, nylon, steel bead wire, silica and 40 different kinds of chemicals, waxes, oils and pigments - quite a cocktail.
Containing such a plethora of materials, tyres present a wide range of opportunities. However, in addition to the potential for material recovery, the very high calorific content of ELTs has led to their widespread use as Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF) in cement kilns and energy recovery facilities.
In the U.S. some 4.39 million tons (4 million tonnes) of the 5.17 million tons (4.7 million tonnes) of the waste tyres generated in 2009 were recovered. Of the recovered ELTs, just over 2 million tons (1.8 million tonnes) were sent for energy recovery and around 1.6 million tons (1.45 million tonnes) were recovered as ground rubber for use by a wide range of industries. Interestingly, the report shows that the recovery of materials grew significantly from the 2007 figures, while use as TDF was down by almost half a million tonns per year.
Using traditional recycling techniques, granulated rubber recovered from waste tyres can be used variously as an aggregate, in tiles, adhesives, asphalt, sports surfaces, and extruded rubber products, to name but a few of its uses. And in terms of energy recovery the natural rubber fraction of the tyre can be considered as a renewable energy source.The waste tyre pyrolysis machine is a good way to tackling tyre waste.
Conclusions
The greatest environmental and economic benefits from the treatment of ELTs lie furthest up the waste hierarchy.
Given the expanding global vehicle base, and the consumable nature of tyres, prevention is probably unattainable. Indeed, for the foreseeable future the number of waste tyres being generated globally will continue to grow. And for passenger car tyres, reuse options, such as retreading, are limited.
While the use of tyres as TDF is certainly better than landfilling or stockpiling, there are many interesting projects on the horizon which offer the potential of recovering not only energy or low value materials, but a wide range of high value materials and energy.The waste tyre pyrolysis machine is a good way to tackling tyre waste.

http://www.nhvplant.com/landing/waste-tyre-pyrolysis-machine.html



[258] Using Resin Parts to Create a Resin Scale Model

投稿者: digood 投稿日:2018年 6月25日(月)15時06分34秒 27.44.208.83  通報   返信・引用

Introduction
The vast majority of resin scale model kits made today are made from plastic (polystyrene).? Most modelers will, sooner or later, come across other materials and cast polyethylene resin is one of these.? Working with polyethylene resin requires different methods and products.? This tutorial is a guide to dealing with this material.
Background information about cast resin can be found in the article?‘Model Kit Materials’and so we will not repeat it here.

Preparing Parts
Whether you are building a complete resin kit, or using an aftermarket kit to convert a standard plastic kit, you will find that the resin parts are likely to need more work on them than the more normal injection molded plastic parts that you may be used to
The quality of plastic kits on the market is very good and most modelers have become used to snipping a plastic part from the spruce and, with little or no clean-up, putting it on the model.? Unfortunately that will not be the case with resin.
Resin parts are cast from a liquid and may well come still attached to the casting block.? If this is so, then they need to be separated. If the attachment point is thin then it might be separated with repeated passes from a sharp hobby knife.? However, if the attachment point is thick it will need to be cut off with a fine saw, sometimes called a razor saw, which is designed for hobbyists.? Normal saws available from hardware stores cannot be used as the teeth of the saw will be too large. The sawing process can be difficult and time-consuming, especially if the link between the part and the casting block is large, but there is no way to avoid it.? You may wish to try using a motor tool to speed up the process, but great care is needed when doing this.? If too much friction is generated, the resin may melt.
The greatest difficulty can be cutting away the casting block without damaging the part.? Sometimes it is better to cut away the bulk of the casting block, leaving a small amount behind that can be trimmed away with a modelling knife.

Note that whenever cutting resin like this, or sanding it, there will be a fine dust produced which is very bad for the lungs.? Wear a filter mask and clean up your work area afterwards.
When the parts have been removed from the casting blocks, they need to be cleaned up.? Any remaining lug where the part was attached to the casting block will need to be cut away with a knife or sanded/filed away.? There is also likely to be a seam that will need to be removed with a sharp blade.

Examining All Parts
Once the parts have been removed from the casting blocks and cleaned up they need to be examined.
One potential fault is warping.? Check whether the part has become distorted.? For example, if it is the chassis of a vehicle place it on a flat surface and see if it sits right or whether it rocks back and forth.? If you find a part has been warped then it is possible to sometimes undo the damage by applying gently heat, such as boiling water or even a hair dryer which softens the resin and makes it possible to reshape it.? Clearly care needs to be used when applying heat in this way to avoid injury.
A second fault is air bubbles.? Sometimes tiny air bubbles can be trapped in the mould whilst the resin is setting and this might mar the surface detail.? These tiny holes are sometimes called ‘pin holes’.? This fault can be rectified with filler and sanding.? Remember that fillers designed for styrene plastic will not adhere to resin.? However, if the pin holes are tiny, almost any type of filler will work well.
Another thing to check for is the need to drill any holes.? Injection molded parts will probably have holes molded into them, but it is more difficult to create holes that go right through a part when it is cast.? It may be that the resin part has an indentation to show where a hole should be, so that the modeller can drill it out completely.

Gluing Parts
Standard polystyrene cement which is perfect for conventional styrene models is absolutely useless for resin parts.  Poly cement works by slightly dissolving the styrene plastic, but it will not dissolve resin and so will not work at all.  When gluing resin parts to each other, or to plastic, you will need to use either two-part epoxy glue or cyano (superglue) adhesive.  Both of these work well, so it is down to individual preference.
Cyano is the most convenient because it does not have to be mixed and so is probably the first choice for many modellers.? However, the epoxy cement will probably produce the strongest and most reliable bond.
Whichever glue you use, it will only work if the surface is prepared properly.? Both types of glue need a dust-free and grease-free surface, so wash the parts in warm water with detergent and dry them thoroughly.? The bond will probably be stronger if the surfaces to be joined are roughened slightly with sand paper.
Once you have glued the parts together, there may be a need for filler.? The normal fillers intended for polystyrene such as Squadron ‘Green Stuff’ and ‘White Stuff’ will not adhere to resin because they are designed to ‘melt’ the surface of polystyrene.? This does not mean that they cannot be used in certain situations, but you should be aware that they may flake away if spread thinly.? Epoxy putties such as Milliput, or other fillers that have a natural tackiness, should normally used in preference when filling resin parts.

Summary
Using resin parts does provide the modeller with additional challenges, but there are also additional rewards.? You have the opportunity to make an unusual or even unique model.? Using resin also gives you the opportunity to hone and develop your modelling skills.? Give it a go.? Try starting with a simple conversion kit to enhance or modify an injection molded kit and build up to a full resin scale model.

http://www.threestonemodel.com/landing/resin-scale-model.html



[257] How Cans Are Made

投稿者: digood 投稿日:2018年 6月25日(月)15時03分55秒 27.44.208.83  通報   返信・引用   編集済

How many pieces are used to make a can such as a cookie tin can? How involved is the process? Get an inside look at how the food and beverage cans we use every day are manufactured.
This is the process of making the cookie tin cans of the biscuit.

http://www.gztinyee.com/landing/cookie-tin-can.html



[256] The history of the biscuit tin box

投稿者: digood 投稿日:2018年 6月25日(月)14時50分55秒 27.44.208.83  通報   返信・引用

Biscuit tin box is utilitarian or decorative containers used to package and sell biscuits (such as those served during tea) and some confectionery. They are commonly found in households in Great Britain, Ireland, and Commonwealth countries, but also on continental Europe and French Canada. Popularity in the United States and English Canada spread later in the 20th century.
Because of their attractive appearance, biscuit tin box have often been used by charities and by some visitor attractions as fundraising devices since the value of the biscuits in a biscuit tin box is substantially less than the price that many customers will happily pay for a tin of biscuits.
Biscuit tin box is steel cans made of tin plate. This consists of steel sheets thinly coated with tin. The sheets are then bent to shape. By about 1850, Great Britain had become the dominant world supplier of tin plate, through a combination of technical innovation and political control over most of the suppliers of tin ore. Biscuit tin manufacture was a small but prestigious part of the vast industry of tin plate production, which saw a huge increase in demand in the 19th century was directly related to the growing industrialisation of food production, by increasingly sophisticated methods of preservation and the requirements made by changing methods of distribution.
The British biscuit tin box came about when the Licensed Grocer's Act of 1861 allowed groceries to be individually packaged and sold. Coinciding with the removal of the duty on paper for printed labels, printing directly on to tinplate became common. The new process of offset lithography, patented in 1877, allowed multicoloured designs to be printed on to exotically shaped tins.
The earliest decorated biscuit tin box was commissioned in 1868 by Huntley & Palmers from the London firm of De La Rue to a design by Owen Jones. Early methods of printing included the transfer process (essentially the method used to decorate porcelain and pottery since about 1750) and the direct lithographic process, which involved laying an inked stone directly on to a sheet of tin. Its disadvantage was that correct colour registration was difficult. The breakthrough in decorative tin plate production was the invention of the offset lithographic process. It consists of bringing a sheet of rubber into contact with the decorated stone, and then setting-off the impression so obtained upon the metal surface. The advantages over previous methods of printing were that any number of colours could be used, correctly positioned, and applied to an uneven surface if necessary. Thus the elaborately embossed, colourful designs that were such a feature of the late Victorian biscuit tin industry became technically possible.
The most exotic designs were produced in the early years of the 20th century, just prior to the First World War. In the 1920s and 1930s, costs had risen substantially and the design of biscuit tin boxs tended to be more conservative, with the exception of the tins targeted at the Christmas market and intended to appeal primarily to children. The designs generally reflected popular interests and tastes.
The advent of the Second World War stopped all production of decorative tin ware and after it ended in 1945, the custom did not enjoy the same popularity as before.
Vintage biscuit tin boxs can be found in various museums and on the market have become collector items.

http://www.gztinyee.com/landing/biscuit-tin-box.html



[255] Benefits OF Building Resin Model Car

投稿者: digood 投稿日:2018年 6月20日(水)16時10分0秒 112.93.135.222  通報   返信・引用

If you build scale models in your free time, chances are you already know the excellent benefits of assembling resin models car and how they can improve your cognitive function. For those that aren't familiar, here are the top five benefits of scale modeling. From emotional support to learning new and fascinating historical facts, there are some distinct benefits that come with this hobby.
Exercise Your Artistic Skills
With any project, the creative side of your brain gets much-needed exercise. Scale model building is an art form, and while you can follow the directions exactly or paint the model in historically accurate fashions, you can also paint outside of the lines and add your own personal flair. There are no right or wrong ways to build a model?it's all up to your personal preference and what you hope to get out it.
Learn the History of Your Models
Whether building models of WWII bombers or an 80’s muscle car, scale model building provides a unique opportunity to dive deep into the history of the vehicle you're building. In fact, before making our own models, we usually spend hours scouring the web for details about the vehicle's paint-scheme, when it first was used, and other relevant facts.
Learning about your resin models car before starting will give you a deeper appreciation for the craftsmanship and design that went into the full-scale original vehicle and entice you even more so to complete it.
Test Your Organization Skills
Scale models come in many shapes and sizes, some with hundreds of parts and some models with only a dozen. Regardless, at every skill level, you have to be able to complete the project by organizing the components of the model and following a list of detailed steps to end up with a beautiful piece.
If you skip any steps, you could end up with extra parts or a model that looks nothing like you had envisioned. With experience comes more skill, but at the start, organization and following the instructions is a fundamental benefit to building models.
Clear Your Head
Taking a break from the stresses of everyday life to sit down for a couple of hours and build a resin models car is a great stress reliever and is often recommended for people working high-stress jobs. Especially if you are an introvert or enjoy your alone time, scale model building is an excellent outlet for stress by focusing on the steps in the instructions or trying to exercise your creativity with the paint scheme.
Building a Collection
If you love collecting things, model making is definitely the hobby for you. Along with the other benefits we listed above, at the end of the building process, you're left with a beautiful scale model of a classic car, plane, or another vehicle to proudly display on the shelf and appreciate for years to come.

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